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美国护士NCLEX-RN考试药理学学习口诀和技巧!

2024-04-12 16:07:23来源: admin阅读量: 206

备考美国护士执照NCLEX-RN考试,关于药理知识点熟悉有关可用药物的大量信息可能是一项艰巨的任务。这些护理助记符的目的是提供一个简单的快速指南来简化药理学的概念。

1. Lidocaine Toxicity: “SAMS”
Lidocaine is a class IB antiarrhythmic used as a second-line agent and after myocardial infarction. The therapeutic drug range for lidocaine is 1.5-5.0 mcg/mL. While generally safe, lidocaine can be toxic if administered inappropriately, and in some cases may cause unintended reactions even when properly administered. Lidocaine toxicity is seen at levels greater than 5 mcg/mL. Remember the mnemonic SAMS for signs and symptoms of lidocaine toxicity.

S: Slurred speech
A: Altered central nervous system
M: Muscle twitching
S: Seizures

1. 利多卡因毒性:“SAMS”
利多卡因是 IB 类抗心律失常药,用作心肌梗塞后的二线药物。利多卡因的治疗药物范围为 1.5-5.0 mcg/mL。虽然利多卡因通常是安全的,但如果服用不当,可能会产生毒性,并且在某些情况下,即使服用正确,也可能会引起意外反应。利多卡因浓度超过 5 mcg/mL 时就会出现毒性。记住利多卡因毒性体征和症状的助记符 SAMS。

S:言语不清
A:中枢神经系统发生改变
M: 肌肉抽搐
S:癫痫发作


2. Medication Administration Checklist: “TRAMP”
Nurses are primarily involved in the administration of medication across various settings. They are primarily involved in both dispensing and preparation of medication. Research on medical administration errors (MAEs) shows an error rate of 60%, 34% mainly in the form of wrong time, wrong rate, or wrong dose. Before dispensing medication, ensure the correct TRAMP. See also the 10 rights of medication administration.

T: Time
Check the order for when it would be given and when was the last time it was given.
R: Route
Check the order if it’s through oral, IV, SQ, IM, or etc.
A: Amount
Check the medication sheet and the doctor’s order before medicating. Be aware of the difference of an adult and a pediatric dose.
M: Medication
Check and verify if it’s the right name and form. Beware of look-alike and sound-alike medication names.
P: Patient
Ask the name of the client and check his/her ID band before giving the medication. Even if you know that patient’s name, you still need to ask just to verify.

2. 药物管理清单:“TRAMP”
护士主要参与各种环境下的药物管理。他们主要参与药物的分配和准备。对医疗管理错误(MAE)的研究表明,错误率高达 60%,其中 34% 主要表现为错误时间、错误率或错误剂量。在配药之前,确保 TRAMP 正确。另请参阅药物管理的 10 项权利。

T:时间
查看订单的下达时间以及最后一次下达时间。
R:路线
检查订单是否通过口服、IV、SQ、IM 等方式。
答:用量
用药前请检查药品说明书和医嘱。请注意成人和儿童剂量的差异。
M:药物
检查并验证名称和形式是否正确。谨防看起来相似和听起来相似的药物名称。
P:患者
在服药前询问患者姓名并检查他/她的身份识别带。即使您知道该患者的姓名,您仍然需要询问以进行验证。


3. Serious Complications of Oral Birth Control Pills: “SEA CASH”
Some women experience side effects with “the pill” such as irregular periods, nausea, headaches, or weight change. If she experiences the side effects with the acronym SEA CASH, calling the help of a medical provider or visiting an emergency room immediately is recommended as they may signify a serious condition.

S: Severe leg pain
E: Eye problems
A: Abdominal pain
C: Chest pain
A: Acne
S: Swelling of ankles and feet
H: Headaches which are severe

3. 口服避孕药的严重并发症:“SEA CASH”
有些女性会出现服用“避孕药”的副作用,例如月经不调、恶心、头痛或体重变化。如果她出现缩写为“SEA CASH”的副作用,建议立即寻求医疗服务提供者的帮助或前往急诊室,因为这可能意味着病情严重。

S:腿部剧烈疼痛
E: 眼睛问题
答:腹痛
C: 胸痛
答:痤疮
S:脚踝和脚肿胀
H:严重头痛

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